Hello

Welcome to my blog! If this is the first time, you are here then I request you to kindly read my Introduction post because I have certain things to say and they are all there:)

Also, if somewhere while going through any of the posts, you feel that something is wrong, plz feel free to comment then and there. I love to get corrected and so, plz do not think a bit before commenting on anything you think I have mentioned is wrong. The only request is plz maintain your dignity and mine as well in the words you use! Kindly do not let your words be a slur on others:) I would be grateful.

Also, I assure you that before writing anything here I will get the same checked with some experienced people, I will do a research again and then only, I will post the same on my blog so you can trust me.


Disclaimer: All the posts on this blog are based on my personal learning, opinion and views. It has no connection, no connotation with the organization I am or I was working for or with any person associated with me.

Happy learning...
_____________________________________________

GSM Core Network: Base Station Subsystem: BTS (1)

As discussed in one of the last posts, the GSM network can be broadly divided into 3 parts:

- BSS: Base Station Subsystem

- NSS: Network Switching Subsystem

- NMS: Network Management Subsystem

As mentioned in last post, Base Station Subsystem takes care of all the radio related functions between a mobile and the network. It consists of Base transceiver stations (basically the tower, BTS) and a base station controller (a BSC)

Today we would be covering Base transceiver stations only. Would not be able to pen down all the entities of this subsystem in one post and so will explain them one by one:) 

So, lets go ahead with BTS:)
All mobiles use a network of well structured and well engineered network of base stations and antennas to cover a large area. In simple terms, a base station is that part of the network which is accountable for handling traffic and managing the signals between a mobile phone and other components in the network switching subsystem. 
A Base station contains the equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals i.e. transceivers, antennas, and the equipments for encrypting and decrypting communications with the BSC (will explain in next chapter).
The area which a base station covers is called a cell and the place where the base station and antennas are located is called a cell site.
A cell is an area which is covered by each base station. This area is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other regular shapes. Though the most commonly used are the hexagonal cells. It looks like a cell in a honeycomb as shown in the diagram below. Cell sizes can range from 1Km to 50 km in radius. Though, the cells built in GSM structure are much smaller, they generally do not go beyond 10km.

Diagram 1: Shows the honeycomb structure of a cell
Diagram 2: Shows the cell site placement
Diagram 3: Is a simpler representation of Diagram 2
Diagram 4: Shows the wrong intepretation what we generally assume that a tower is located at the center of a cell
Conclusion: Cell site is not located at the centre of a cell. It is located at the edges or the corners

Each cell site's base station uses a computerized 800 or 1900 megahertz transceiver with an antenna to provide coverage. Each of the cells is assigned with multiple frequencies which are carefully chosen to reduce interference with neighboring cells. The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference. As I said above, would be explaining frequencies in different chapter so this is all about the same in this one.
Coming back, the area served by a cell site completely depends on geography, population, and the traffic in that particular area. In some GSM systems, a base station hierarchy exists, with pico cells covering the building interiors, microcells covering the selected outdoor areas, and macrocells providing more extensive coverage to wider areas. Narrowly directed sites cover tunnels, subways and specific roadways.
In short, the macro cell controls all the cells overlaid beneath it. A macro cell is often built to provide coverage and smaller cells are built to provide capacity. Hope this all makes senseJ
Been a lot of gyaan for todayJ Hope I was clear. Plz let me know your feedback...

25 comments:

  1. Hi, This blog is very useful even for Techies. Being a Techie working in Telecom domain, I don't have clarity on lot of topics explained here. Thank you very much for ur time on this blog which will help many people.

    ReplyDelete
  2. ya viswam devireddy do u have any idea about where we will be using switches and routers in bts,lte.....ETC...would u please help...thanks in advance

    ReplyDelete
  3. I am very lucky as I am always looking positive for such things. I am fond of reading such blogs and search of amazing thing easy to understand what you want to say in this discussion.Dissertation writing service Thanks a lot for sharing.Thank you for sharing your above info…
    Discount master app
    Create Discount master

    ReplyDelete
  4. What do I say about your posts? I love them. I read them everyday and always wait for new ones. I am very happy because I have something interesting to read. Hope you can upload more and more.
    pop on sale
    pop price guide app

    ReplyDelete
  5. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!
    shipping bar app
    Shipping Bar for Shopify

    ReplyDelete
  6. What do I say about your posts? I love them. I read them everyday and always wait for new ones. I am very happy because I have something interesting to read. Hope you can upload more and more.
    autoketing
    facebook chat
    facebook live chat

    ReplyDelete
  7. I liked the way you discussed your thoughts on this article. Always, there are many interesting information her to learn
    autoketing.com
    currency converter app download
    currency converter box online

    ReplyDelete
  8. Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting? I'm pleased I discovered it though, ill be checking back soon to find out what additional posts you include. absolutclick ad network

    ReplyDelete
  9. Much appreciated such a great amount for this data. I need to tell you I agree on a few of the focuses you make here and others might require some further survey, however I can see your perspective. http://number.io/blog/free-sip-trunk-for-testing/

    ReplyDelete
  10. What do I say about your posts? I love them. I read them everyday and always wait for new ones. I am very happy because I have something interesting to read. Hope you can upload more and more.
    free games online 2019
    friv jogos

    ReplyDelete
  11. Graceful written content on this blog is really useful for everyone same as I got to know. Difficult to locate relevant and useful informative blog as I found this one to get more knowledge but this is really a nice one.
    Ablerex UPS MSII RT SERIES

    ReplyDelete

  12. food games free
    basketball games 2019
    soccer games
    Graceful written content on this blog is really useful for everyone same as I got to know. Difficult to locate relevant and useful informative blog as I found this one to get more knowledge but this is really a nice one.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I would love to keep track of your posts, it is really a useful source of information, wish you success. It's great, wish you success in the next blog, this is a post that we all should read at least once.
    kizi 2 player racing games, 2 player pbs games, friv jogos online

    ReplyDelete
  14. Sometime few educational blogs become very helpful while getting relevant and new information related to your targeted area. As I found this blog and appreciate the information delivered to my database.
    FortiAnalyzer 400E

    ReplyDelete
  15. Lithium is the best source to save energy many batterys are made with lithium if you want more knowledge then visit kitaab. its really grat for extra knowledge 2player best free online games
    friv Games to play
    io jogos for school

    ReplyDelete
  16. Great post i must say and thanks for the information. Education is definitely a sticky subject. However, is still among the leading topics of our time. I appreciate your post and look forward to more.
    miniclip games,
    a10 games to play,
    jogos para crianças

    ReplyDelete
  17. Your post is providing some really good information. I liked its essence and enjoyed reading it. Keep sharing such important posts about this blog and its much more helpful for us .
    Lenovo ThinkSystem SR530

    ReplyDelete
  18. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. What are some great ways to make money online

    ReplyDelete
  19. This is really nice to read content of this blog. A is very extensive and vast knowledgeable platform has been given by this blog. I really appreciate this blog to has such kind of educational knowledge.
    HPE SimpliVity 380 Gen10

    ReplyDelete
  20. Gracefully written information on this blog are going to support me for my coming assignments. Every point was very clear and taught me few new parameters. I would like to use this information in coming future.
    APC Smart UPS SRT

    ReplyDelete
  21. This is unfathomably a brilliant and enlightening, containing all data furthermore massively impacts the new progression. A commitment of gratefulness is all together to share it

    goggy games
    friv for kids Games
    y8 games 2 player

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hello. This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my previous roommate. He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this page to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing.
    online games free
    jogos friv
    jogos 360 game

    ReplyDelete
  23. This blog is truly useful to convey overhauled instructive undertakings over web which is truly examination. I discovered one fruitful case of this truth through this blog. I will utilize such data now.
    APC Power Saving Back UPS Pro

    ReplyDelete
  24. Your post is providing some really good information. I liked its essence and enjoyed reading it. Keep sharing such important posts about this blog and its much more helpful for us .
    HPE ProLiant ML30 Gen10

    ReplyDelete